# Numbers

As you go through old records, there will always be a date present. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how numbers and dates work in Catalan.

### Numbers

In Catalan records, there are two main types of numbers used to express figures and dates. The first group of numbers used in these records is the set of Roman numerals. Even though they may show some variations from the ones still used today, they are usually easy to read. The researcher must be aware of the common use of some lower-case letters to represent Roman numerals, for example, iii instead of III.

It is recommended a researcher check other records written by the same scribe to ensure the correct reading of a particular number. The chart of Roman numerals to the right is also helpful while gaining familiarity with the different styles in which they can appear.

Some of the older documents you look at may use the following symbol:

This "U" like character signifies the space between the thousands place and the hundreds place.

For example:

Or "1 U DXCI" would be 1591.

Before the "U," the scribe may place a "1" instead of an "M" (such as with our 1591 example.)

The second and most relevant types of numbers are Arabic numerals, which are the most widely used today. These are usually easy to read, but some are sometimes confusing because their shape can be similar to other numbers, such as 1 and 7 or 5 and 9. Here are some examples:

When dating documents, most records will use Cardinal Numerals (one, two, three) or Ordinal Numerals (first, second, third).

Below is a basic guide to the different kinds of numbers you may encounter in Catalan records:

## Arabic |
## Roman |
## Cardinal |
## Ordinal |

1 |
I |
un |
primer |

2 |
II |
dos |
segon |

3 |
III |
tres |
tercer |

4 |
IV |
quatre |
quart |

5 |
V |
cinc |
cinquè |

6 |
VI |
sis |
sisè |

7 |
VII |
set |
setè |

8 |
VIII |
vuit |
vuitè |

9 |
IX |
nou |
novè |

10 |
X |
deu |
desè |

11 |
XI |
onze |
onzè |

12 |
XII |
dotze |
dotzè |

13 |
XIII |
tretze |
tretzè |

14 |
XIV |
catorze |
catorzè |

15 |
XV |
quinze |
quinzè |

16 |
XVI |
setze |
setzè |

17 |
XVII |
disset |
disset |

18 |
XVIII |
diviut |
divuitè |

19 |
XIX |
dinou |
dinovè |

20 |
XX |
vint |
vintè |

21 |
XXI |
vint-i-u/un/una |
vint-i-unè |

22 |
XXII |
vinte-i-dos/dues |
vint-i-dosè |

23 |
XXIII |
vinte-i-tres |
vint-i-tresè |

30 |
XXX |
trenta |
trentè |

31 |
XXX1 |
trenta-u/un/una |
trenta-unè |

32 |
XXXII |
trenta-dos/dues |
trenta-dosè |

33 |
XXXIII |
trinta-tres |
trenta-tresè |

40 |
XXXX |
quaranta |
quarantè |

50 |
L |
cinquanta |
cinquantè |

60 |
LX |
seixanta |
seixantè |

70 |
LXX |
setanta |
setantè |

80 |
LXXX |
vuitanta |
vuitantè |

90 |
XC |
noranta |
norantè |

100 |
C |
cent |
centè |

100 |
CC |
dos-cents |
dos-centè |

1,000 |
M |
mil |
milè |

Image Credit:

- Table: Muñóz y Rivero, D. Jesús,
*Tabla de Numerales*, 1889 in D. Jesús Muñóz y Rivero,*Manual de paleografía diplomática española de los siglos xvii al xvii*, ed. 2 (Madrid: Imprenta de G. Pedraza, 1889), 103. This image is in the public domain.